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Chinese scientists reveal why giant pandas and red pandas evolve to eat bamboo

Le 2 mai 2017, 10:25 dans Humeurs 0

Chinese researchers said Monday they have uncovered the genetic basis of why giant pandas and red pandas have evolved independently to have shared features such as a bamboo-based diet and false thumb.


Despite being classified as carnivores, both giant pandas and red pandas, which separately evolved from meat-eating ancestors and diverged from each other more than 40 million years ago, subsist almost entirely on bamboo -- a phenomenon termed convergent evolution, where similar traits arise in two unrelated or distantly related species.


Additionally, both species possess a false thumb, which enables the animals to adroitly grasp bamboo.


To uncover the genetic basis of such convergence, Fuwen Wei and colleagues from the Institute of Zoology, part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, sequenced the genome of a wild male red panda and compared it with the reassembled genome of the giant panda. Their findings were published in the recent issue of U.S. journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


The results confirmed that giant pandas belong to the family Ursidae together with polar bears, whereas red pandas belong to the superfamily Musteloidea together with ferrets and that the two species separated 47.5 million years ago, slightly earlier than previous molecular-based estimate of 43 million years ago.


Genome analysis revealed signs of adaptive convergence in 70 genes, including two genes, known as DYNC2H1 and PCNT, that are involved in false thumb development.


Further, enzymes involved in dietary protein digestion and amino acid utilization as well as proteins involved in vitamin metabolism and absorption showed signs of adaptive convergence, suggesting that these genes may have similarly evolved to support and supplement a bamboo-based diet.


Giant and red panda genomes also share 10 pseudogenes, or "false" genes, which look like real genes but have no apparent function.


Notably, the TAS1R1 gene, which enables carnivores to taste meat’s umami flavor, has been pseudogenized in both pandas, reflecting the animals’ shift from carnivory to omnivory and, ultimately, herbivory.


"Our findings provide rich insights into genetic convergence mechanisms underlying phenotypic convergence and adaptation to a specialized bamboo diet in both pandas," the researchers wrote in their paper.

Tips To Look 21 At 51 Without Going Under The Knif

Le 19 avril 2017, 05:41 dans Humeurs 0




Our obsession on aging has led some to go under surgery just to look younger.


I dare say that there's nothing wrong to wish for a more youthful appearance but not to the point of cutting your skin in half and end more messed up in the process.


Perhaps Hollywood poses the most number of people who go into almost-life threatening measures to look 20 to 30 years younger. In the most ironic situations Karson Choi , the media seems to glorify those who were able to beat aging and promote the surgeries which the celebrities went under.


The 50's is a point in life that most people tend to avoid as much as possible and try not to think about. But being in your 50's actually gives you more freedom. At this stage of your life, you have made milestones on your job, you have raised stable adults, and you are old enough to be wise and yet still young not to use canes when walking.


If you have the bucks to spend and you have been completely briefed on the repercussions of lying on the operating table to remove the lines and look like you've just completed college, then it's your decision. But with all the stories of surgeries going wrong and resulting to death, it might be worthy to look at ways on how to look like you haven't aged in ages.


1. Enroll in body and mind-enhancing exercises


Signing up for yoga, pilates and all those exercises that clear the mind and concentrate on easing your inner self. The main exercises focus on breathing freely and making sure that you know how to focus on one thing and one thing only serviced apartments. Multitasking has become one of our priorities as to accomplish more tasks once. This is not bad but tends to take away the moment of appreciating that beauty of one situation and concentrate on the stress of the millions of things that we have to do.


2. Pamper yourself on a luxury spa vacation


Most of our lines are caused by stress. Spas has evolved from being just a facility with rooms for backrubs to a place for wellness treatments as well as guidance on everything from nutrition to nurturing ourselves. Spots for luxury spas are booming like pimples on an oily skin and therefore there are a lot of choices and no excuse for you to make a reservation.


3. Appreciate and flaunt what you have


It might be easier said than done but it is actually simple to do. Take time to pause and look around you. At the tender age of 50, you're still alive with the average lifespan is declining. You still have a roof above your head and you still woke and read this post. All of us have problems to deal with so there's no reason to feel worst for ourselves.


4. Compare yourself with others


This may sound narcissistic but it works when viewed in an objective way. Take time to look at your yearbooks and compare yourself with someone there whom you still know up to know and see what edge you have over them. Knowing that someone is going through the same experience you have and yet looks kind of worst and help them in any way you can. Now, there's the redeeming value.


5. Do something spontaneous and safely outrageous


Doing something unplanned and yet most enjoyable is a way to feel good, and when you feel good, you look good. Operative word here is doing something that is SAFELY outrageous. Consider your health first reenex. If you have diabetes and you want to go on a chocolate fest, then do some other thing.


6. Never underestimate the power of makeup


Putting on a little bit of blush or a concealer won't hurt and will definitely make you glamorously young. Go for the makeup that are chemically good for your skin. If the Ambush makeover team is on your neighborhood, then make yourself noticeable in the streets.


The key to looking like you just drank from the fountain of youth is to feel good about yourself. Sure, there are things that you did 20 years ago that you can't do now. But then again, there are things that you can do now that you weren't able to do back then. I am not against surgical enhancements, but I also see no harm in going the natural way.


I daresay that there's nothing wrong to wish for a more youthful appearance but not to the point of cutting your skin in half and end more messed up in the process.


Two years of endless saving of every penny finally paid off and she was able to work as a production assistant in a locally-run tv station where she travelled with the crew to different states in this beautiful country. With her salary up, she now makes it a point to get out of the country at least once every two months and chronicles her thoughts through her travel blog.

Recovering from Rhinoplasty Surgery

Le 30 mars 2017, 06:22 dans Humeurs 0

After rhinoplasty surgery, your doctor will send you home with an instruction sheet listing many things to be aware of and take heed of after the surgery and before your next office visit. He'll give you contact numbers to phone in case of any emergency that may arise or if you have any questions or concerns after you've left the office. He'll ask you to keep your head elevated for the next two to three days. That is, if you sleep face down, he'll ask that you consciously make the effort to sleep face up, on your back. This will help reduce the swelling and keep your blood flowing properly throughout the area. A common sensation is a feeling of stuffiness and a desire to blow your nose which you must resist. You'll be breathing through your mouth for a few days and most people describe this as uncomfortable.


Drink a lot of liquids and keep your talking to a minimum and this will help you get through this unavoidable situation. It is also common to experience a feeling of heaviness on your face. This is common and can be quite easily relieved with some simple pain killers which will also help in the case of any headaches. If you have difficulty sleeping you beauty 做 facial, your doctor may prescribe several days worth of mild sleeping pills but would rather not as they will slow down the healing process just a bit. Rarely do patients have a truly terrible time after rhinoplasty. The adjustments are temporary and the rewards for a job well done far outweigh the minor post surgical inconveniences which can mostly be addressed with simple procedures and medications.


You can expect discoloring of the skin and tissue surrounding the nose after the surgery. This black and blue look will begin to dissipate within a week or so especially after the splint has been removed. Small amounts of makeup and skin covers may be used as long as they do not irritate the area. Try to avoid putting makeup directly onto the incisions if at all possible to avoid possible infection. During this period, make extra sure that nobody touches your nose or face, that you do not bump your nose, or do anything that could slow down the healing process. Watch out especially for kids who don't mean to hurt you but will display great curiosity about Mommy or Daddy's new nose and pets who just don't know any better nuskin 香港. You should also avoid the sun, avoid wearing eyeglasses (use contacts during this period if possible) and try not to rub the nose too hard when you wash your face.


The most common reaction people have upon seeing their new nose is disappointment. Yes. I said disappointment. Patients, even the most informed ones, expect to see a perfect nose upon removal of the splint and any packing, if used. This will not happen. You can expect to see swelling, sutures (if done externally), bruising, some broken blood vessels and that overall black and blue, just been in a fistfight look, that you did not expect. Relax. In a few days, the swelling will start to go down, the bruising will fade and your new nose will start to emerge. If you've selected the right surgeon and asked for the right changes tourism industry, you should be pleased in a short period of time with your new look, the new shape of your nose and the new harmony of your face. Remember, your nose will continue to improve slowly for many weeks and even months after the surgical procedure has faded from your memory.

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